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FAQs

Answers to frequently asked questions about developing apps and games by using Amazon APIs and technology

Program Overview

Q: What can I do in the Amazon developer portal?

Using our portal, developers can distribute their mobile apps, digital software, and video games on Android, PC, Mac, and web-based platforms.

With Amazon’s self-service account management tools and marketing services, you can manage your mobile apps and PC and Mac software and video games, and market them to tens of millions of Amazon customers. Developers can also sell their mobile apps on Amazon devices. Learn more about developing for Fire tablets and Fire phone.

To submit your mobile app, digital software, or video game to Amazon, go to https://developer.amazon.com/welcome.html.

To learn more about submitting PC and Mac digital software and video games for distribution on Amazon, see PC and Mac Digital Software and Video Games.

Q: How will customers find my apps on Amazon?

Customers can discover and shop for apps on their Android devices. Amazon promotes your apps by using ecommerce and marketing features such as search and search refinement, browse, and recommendations based on customers’ past purchases. Customers can also search, browse, and purchase apps on Amazon websites in the U.S., UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Canada, and China.

Q: Which mobile operating systems does Amazon support?

Amazon currently supports the Android operating system on devices running Android OS 2.2 and higher.

Q: What is my revenue split with Amazon?

Amazon pays developers 70% of the marketplace list price for all sales.

Q: How much does Amazon charge for using its developer program?

The program is free. You pay nothing to create a developer account, use Amazon APIs, and submit apps.

Q: Can I list (or post) free apps?

Yes. You are welcome to give away free apps on Amazon.

Q: Do I need an Amazon account to be a part of the Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program?

Yes. We recommend that you create a new Amazon account specifically for the Mobile App Distribution Program.You can create an account when you visit the Amazon developer portal.

Q: I sell an app on Google Play. Can I submit the same app to the Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program?

Yes. The Amazon program is non-exclusive.

Q: Where can I see the Amazon Mobile App Distribution and Services Agreement?

When you sign in to the Amazon developer portal, you will see a link to the agreement at the bottom of the page. Review the current version of the Amazon Mobile App Distribution and Services Agreement

Q: Where can I find out about recent changes to the Amazon App Distribution and Services Agreement?

The most recent changes to the agreement are described here.

Q: Where does Amazon sell mobile apps?

Amazon Apps is currently available to customers in nearly 200 countries, including the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Japan, China, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, India, South Africa, and South Korea. Check the developer blog for more information on international availability.

Q: Why is my app tested on non-Amazon devices or from non-U.S. locations?

Some aspects of app testing for the Amazon Appstore may be carried out internationally. The testing process includes testing on a variety of devices, including both Amazon devices and non-Amazon Android devices, to verify that apps in the store function properly.

Submission: Account and User Permissions

Q: How do I start selling games and apps on Amazon?

On the developer portal, click the Create an Account button. The portal is a self-service tool that will guide you through account creation. After creating an account and accepting the Amazon Mobile App Distribution and Services Agreement, you can start submitting apps.

Q: What can I do in the developer portal?

In addition to submitting apps and tracking their approval status, you can access your profile, payment information, application submission and management tools, and sales, payment, and earning reports.

Q: How do I change my contact information?

If you are the administrator of your developer portal account, sign in to the portal, click Settings, and then click Edit. Here you can edit your account information, company profile, and user permissions.

If you are not the account administrator, ask the person in your organization who is the administrator to make any necessary changes.

Q: How do I change my email address and company name?

To protect the security of your account, Amazon does not allow changes to your company name and email address. You can request changes to your company name and email address by using the Contact Us form.

Q: How do I change the information Amazon uses to pay me?

Only users with the administrator role can change payment information. In the developer portal, click Settings, click Payment Information, and then click Edit. Make changes as necessary and then click Save.

Q: How do I add a user to my Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program account?

Only users with the administrator role can add users. To add a new user, sign in to the developer portal, click Settings, click User Permissions, and then click Add New. You will be prompted to enter an email address and select a role or roles for the new user. When you're done, click Save.

Amazon will send the new user an invitation email. The user clicks a link in the email to access the portal, and then creates their own password. The user will have access to the account until you remove them.

Q: What privileges does each user role have?

All users can manage their personal details, view their company’s profile, view their company’s apps, access Support, and initiate Contact Us inquiries with Amazon. Additional privileges include:

  • Administrator – This role has full access to all areas of the developer portal and can manage user permissions and payment information. The first user associated with an Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program account is the owner and retains sole administrator privileges by default. The owner is also responsible for all activities that occur under user accounts authorized to access the account.
  • Marketer – Other than administrator, this is the only role that can edit the company profile and content associated with apps (such as merchandising and multimedia). This role also can access sales reports.
  • Developer – Other than administrator, this is the only role that can upload app binaries.
  • Analyst – Other than administrator, this is the only role that can view payment reports. This role also can access sales reports.

 

Q: How do I remove a user from my Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program account?

On the developer portal, click Settings, click User Permissions, click Edit, and then click Remove access next to the user you’d like to remove. Click OK to confirm the action. Administrators cannot change the owner’s access.

Q: I own two or more development companies. How do I use the same credentials to manage multiple accounts?

The single sign-on feature allows you to manage more than one developer portal account with different sets of apps with one username and password combination. If you are logged in, you can create an additional account by clicking here. To switch between accounts you can use the drop-down selector next to your name located at the top-right corner of any page.

Submission: App Testing Service

Q: What is the Amazon App Testing Service?

The Amazon App Testing Service (ATS) is a tool you can use to test your Android app prior to submitting it to the Amazon Appstore. This free service tests your app for common issues that can block it from being compatible with Amazon devices on the Amazon Appstore. Additionally, developers have access to device tests that enable them to see how an app looks and performs on an actual device hosted in the Amazon device cloud.

More than 75% of Android tablet apps that we tested work on the Amazon Appstore with no additional development required. You can submit your app to the Amazon Appstore directly from this new tool.

Q: What kind of testing does this service perform?

The app testing service performs two types of tests on Android apps:

Compatibility test — The test analyzes your Android app’s APK file and lets you know if your app:

  • Uses software libraries that might prevent your app from being compatible with the Amazon Appstore. If so, we suggest what to use instead.
  • Uses Amazon APIs incorrectly. If so, we provide documentation to help.
  • Contains features that are not supported by certain devices, and how to handle this.

 

Device test — Amazon tests your app on real devices and does the following:

  • Installs and launches the app
  • Explores your app using appXplorer. appXplorer explores your apps, identifying different activities.
  • appXplorer is optimized for apps that have used native Android UI widgets to build the user interface. Apps that build user interfaces using technologies such as OpenGL and HTML5 are not effectively explored in the current version.
  • Emails you test results that include test events, screen shots of the app, CPU usage, memory heap utilization and detailed logs. Test results may vary based on the technology used for developing the user interface of the app.

 

Q: My app requires user authentication for device testing. How do I provide login credentials?

We do not collect user authentication information; appXplorer does not explore the sections of the app that require user login credentials.

Q: My app was not tested on a device or limited tests were performed. Why does this happen?

appXplorer is optimized for apps that use native Android UI widgets to build the user interface. Apps that build user interfaces using technologies such as OpenGL and HTML5 are not effectively explored in the current version. appXplorer does not explore apps that require any form of user authentication. Device testing will not be performed if the app is an invalid APK. Apps that use specific APIs of level 18 and above will not work on the device.

Q: My ATS device test email notification says “Unable to test the App.” Why does this happen?

This email is sent if appXplorer is unable to install, launch or explore the app on an actual device. This may happen because of an invalid APK, unsupported OS and API version, or ATS internal error. If you receive this message, please check your app for compatibility and re-submit the app for testing.

Q: Why are my device test results delayed?

Compatibility test results will be available within 90 seconds. Device test results may take up 6 hours depending on the traffic we experience on the service. In case the appXplorer testing load is very high, test results can be delayed up to 24 hours from the time of submission.

Q: When I tested the same app on ATS it showed different device test results each time I ran the test. Why is that?

Your compatibility test results do not vary, whereas device-testing results may vary depending on the app. appXplorer may explore the app using different app flows, which may result in navigating to different screens and detecting app crashes during a specific app flow. This is not common, but may happen in some apps.

Q: Are my app test results public?

No. Test results are never shared publicly. Developers need to log into their developer portal account to see these results.

Q: Why do I get a “Results not found” error for device test results?

You may get this error if the email address used to submit for device testing is different from the email address used for developer portal sign-in.

Q: What if I decide not to submit my app?

That's fine. If you are signed into the developer portal, your test results will be stored and you can submit your app later, if you wish. If you are not signed in, you can come back and re-run the test later.

Q: If the App Testing Service does not find an error in my app, does that guarantee the app will be published by the Amazon Appstore after I submit it?

No. Apps submitted to the developer portal are subject to further review by our content operations team. We test submitted apps prior to making them available to verify that each works as outlined in your product description, does not impair the functionality of the mobile device or put customer data at risk once installed, and complies with the terms of the App Distribution and Services Agreement and our Content Guidelines.

For more information about the approval process, see the "Submission: Content Guidelines" section of this FAQ.

Submission: App Details

Q: Can I use the words “Amazon,” “Kindle,” or “Fire” in the title of my app?

If you refer to Amazon or any Amazon product or service (including Kindle or Fire) in the title of your app, you must:

  • Refer to Amazon or to the Amazon product or service only in a way that describes the app’s compatibility or purpose, by using words such as “for” or “to.” Example: “Tips and Tricks for Fire Tablets”
  • Not include any Amazon logo, icon, or image in the icons for your app
  • Not imply any sponsorship or endorsement by Amazon, or otherwise mischaracterize your relationship with Amazon
  • Include the following statement in the product description for your app: “This app was not created or endorsed by Amazon.”

For more information, please refer to Trademark, Brand and Marketing Guidelines.

Q: What assets do I need to submit an app?

Amazon provides rich merchandising capabilities. App product pages on Amazon can display product descriptions and up to eight images and five videos. You can also submit a promotional graphic that will make it easier for Amazon to feature your app on Amazon.com.

While Amazon encourages you to submit as many merchandising assets as possible, the minimum assets required for submission are:

  • a small icon (114 x 114px)
  • a thumbnail (a larger version of the icon) (512 x 512px)
  • a minimum of three screenshots that accurately depict your app (1024 x 600px or 800 x 480px)
  • a promotional image that includes the name of your app (1024 x 500px)

 

Q: What specifications do my assets need to meet?

Please submit assets using these specifications:
Asset Type Description Specifications
Icon A representative icon for display on the desktop of the mobile device after app installation
  • 114 x 114px
  • PNG with transparent background
Thumbnail A larger version of the icon image (this should be the same image as the icon) for use in search results and on product detail pages
  • 512 x 512px
  • PNG with transparent background
Screenshots A minimum of three app screenshots and a maximum of 10 for use on Amazon product detail pages
  • 1024 x 600px or 800 x 480px
  • Landscape or portrait
  • PNG or JPEG
Promotional A landscape image for use in promotional placements that is not a screenshot, but an attractive representation of your app that includes your app’s name and can be easily read in a scaled-down version
  • 1024 x 500px (Landscape only)
  • PNG, or JPEG (No animation)
Video When available, up to five videos related to your app are placed on the product detail page. Videos will be embedded, so it’s important that you meet the specifications.
  • At least 720 px wide (4:3 or 16:9)
  • 5 megabytes (maximum)
  • 1200 kbps or higher
  • MPEG-2, WMV, Quicktime, FLV, AVI, H.264 MPEG-4

Q: Are there non-technical specifications that my assets must meet?

Yes. Our Content Guidelines can be found below, but the following are key items to remember for specific assets:
  • Thumbnails
    • The thumbnail is a larger version of the icon for use in search results and on product detail pages; the thumbnail should be the same graphic as the smaller icon image. Be certain that the thumbnail is clear and sharp. Do not just scale up the PNG image of your icon—doing so results in a blurry image that is not compelling to customers.
  • Screenshots
    • Material that is subject to copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property protection should be included only if you have obtained all necessary rights and licenses
    • If your screenshots will display personal information (such as account names or log-in information), populate the fields with dummy information
    • If the app requires you to input information to demonstrate its functions (such as a social-network feed or recent searches), populate those fields with dummy information that is representative of the typical customer experience
  • Promotional
    • Include the title of your app and a strong visual image to reinforce the brand, form, or function of the app. Do not include any content that is presented elsewhere in the shopping experience, such as price, screenshots, descriptive text, ratings, or buttons. All text should be at least 50px from any edge. The entire image should be legible when scaled down to 300x146px.
  • Videos
    • Material subject to copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property protection should only be included if you have obtained all necessary rights and licenses
    • You may insert additional text, audio, and images into your videos, but the video must showcase/demo the app content and remain relevant to the actual user experience
    • Videos should demo the app. Eliminate visual and audio distractions that are unrelated to the content of your app. If possible, capture video output directly from your app. If capturing video by using a camera, use a tripod and maximize the visibility of your app by avoiding harsh glare and reflections.
    • If the app requires you to input personal information (such as account names, log-in information, or social-network feed), populate the fields with dummy information
    • Videos must not feature a device or OS that is not supported by Amazon without also featuring one that is (for example, if iOS is shown or mentioned, Android must be as well)

 

Q: How should I choose screenshots?

  • Highlight the app’s most interesting features in a logical progression that mimics a typical user’s experience
  • Focus on the app’s core functionality, while touching on one or two of its less prominent features
  • Begin at the broadest area of user interaction (for example, the main menu), comprehensively document the app’s main feature(s), and explore the app’s peripheral features, menus, and settings
  • If the app allows switching between portrait and landscape modes, consider which layout accentuates each of the app’s features, and feel free to alternate between layouts when taking screenshots
  • Don’t pack too much information into each screenshot

 

Q: How can I be sure that my app includes "HD" in the title?

To ensure that customers have a great HD experience on Fire tablets, the following requirements must be met:

  • The app is designed for high-density screens (hdpi or xhdpi) and declares this support in the manifest
  • The app’s drawables are optimized for high-density screens (images can be rendered at native resolution)
  • The app uses the entirety of the screen (without letterboxing)
  • Video content in the app (if applicable) must be at least 24 frames per second and 720p (in video-focused applications)

If you believe your app meets these requirements and should be identified as HD on the product detail page, include the notation "please review for HD designation” in the Testing Instructions field when you submit your app.

For information about making your app look good on Kindle Fire tablets, see Screen Layout and Resolution.

Q: How do maturity ratings work for apps on Amazon?

When submitting an app in the developer portal, you tell Amazon about your app's content in the portal's Content Rating tab. Amazon will assign a summary maturity rating to your app based on the information you provide and on Amazon’s review of your submission, and then display that rating on the app detail page. Amazon reserves the right to assign maturity ratings for your app at its discretion.

Q: Why do you ask about export and import compliance?

Amazon needs to know that every app you submit complies with applicable export and import regulations before it can be sold on Amazon.com.

Submission: Binary Info

Q: What screen resolutions should I consider when creating my APK?

You should consider multiple screen sizes and resolutions. The primary screen size categories are:

  • Small screen
  • Normal screen
  • Large screen
  • Extra-large screen

For each screen size category, the device’s display may be:

  • Low density (120 dpi)
  • Medium density (160 dpi)
  • High density (240 dpi)
  • Extra high density (320 dpi)

 

Q: Can I apply DRM to my app?

Yes. For each app that you submit to Amazon, you can choose to apply DRM or to make your app available without any rights management constraints. If you choose to apply DRM to one of your apps, you must use the DRM system provided by Amazon through the developer portal. To apply DRM, select an app in the My Apps section of the portal, and then click the Binary Files tab. Follow the instructions on the page.

Q: How does Amazon prepare my binary for distribution?

Amazon wraps your binary with code that allows Amazon to enforce our DRM (if applicable), collect analytics related to the app, evaluate and enforce our program policies, and share aggregated information with you and others regarding the program.

Q: What’s the maximum size for an APK?

If your APK is larger than 150MB, you will be directed to use the SFTP server instead of uploading directly via the developer portal. If this is your first time using SFTP, you must request a new SFTP login. For instructions and credentials, in the portal click the name of your app, and then select the Binary File(s) tab. On this tab, select the SFTP instructions and naming convention link, which will take you to instructions, file naming formats, and your SFTP server and credentials.

The Amazon Appstore does not enforce an upper limit on app submissions by using the FTP server. In practice, however, APK files larger than 100MB are problematic from both the ingestion and delivery perspectives. Amazon recommends that you deploy a smaller APK that downloads and installs quickly, and then upon first launch downloads additional resources and saves them on a local file system. Binary blobs (.obb) are not supported by the Amazon Appstore, so it is up to the developer to install external resources in the proper path after downloading them at runtime, and to submit an APK compiled without .obb files.

You can use the steps for setting up a new FTP login to retrieve an existing FTP login. On the Binary File(s) tab, in the Binary file* section, select the SFTP instructions and naming convention link to view the instructions.

Pay close attention to the names of the files that you upload via FTP. You must follow the naming conventions exactly in order for our system to recognize your files. For guidance on file names, on the SFTP instructions and naming convention page, click Learn more about SFTP asset naming convention.

Q: How do I add multiple binaries for device targeting to a new app?

For guidance on using multiple binaries for device targeting, see Device Targeting.

Q: How and why does Amazon add metadata to my app?

Amazon wraps your binary with code for the following purposes:

  • To collect analytics relating to the Apps
  • To evaluate and enforce our program policies
  • To share aggregated information with you and others regarding the program
  • To modify and add to your Mobile Apps so we can (at your option) enforce digital rights management (“DRM”)
  • To add metadata to your Mobile Apps so we can improve their compatibility with Amazon devices

In addition, Amazon overwrites your application signature and applies an Amazon signature, unique to you, for all your apps. This signature does not change, and we are happy to provide the following hashes for you on request:

  • MD5:
  • SHA1:
  • SHA256:
  • Public Key exponent:
  • Public Key modulus:
  • Facebook hash:

To request these hashes, please use Contact Us.

To ensure that all your app’s functionality is retained when you submit your app, test the exact version you intend to submit with Live App Testing before submitting the app.

Q: Should I test my app as part of submission?

Yes. Amazon prepares your for distribution by wrapping it with code for DRM and analytics. You can use Live App Testing before submission to see how this additional code will impact the behavior of your app. This tool allows you to distribute your app to testers who can verify that your app works as it should after it is prepared for distribution in the Amazon Appstore. This way, you can ensure that your app is working as expected before going live. For more information, see Publishing Android Apps to the Amazon Appstore.

Q: How do I submit an app that exceeds the Android 65,000 method limit?

If you submit an app that references more than 65,535 methods, you see the following error message:

Unable to execute dex: method ID not in [0, 0xffff]: 65536

Conversion to Dalvik format failed: Unable to execute dex: method ID not in [0, 0xffff]: 65536

This is because Android has a limit of 65,535 method references for Dalvik executable (dex) bytecode files. For more information on avoiding or dealing with this issue, see Submitting an App That References 65,000 Methods.

Submission: Content Guidelines

Q: How does the app approval process work?

We want customers to have a good experience with every app they acquire from Amazon. For this reason, we test the apps you submit prior to making them available to verify that each app works as outlined in your product description, does not impair the functionality of the mobile device or put customer data at risk once installed, and complies with the terms of the Amazon App Distribution and Services Agreement and our Content Guidelines. Our intent is not to be prescriptive in terms of what constitutes good app design. Amazon is a big believer in innovation, and we hope to feature many creative and innovative apps.

We start the app review process when you submit an app in the developer portal. You can track the approval status of your app by signing in to the portal and finding your app in the Dashboard on the home page.

If we have a question about your app during the review process or determine that it does not meet one of Amazon’s acceptance criteria, we will notify you by using the email address associated with your account and provide guidance on next steps. We will also notify you once your app successfully completes the testing process. At that point, your app will be made available to publish and merchandize on Amazon Apps.

Q: Do my apps need to comply with a content policy?

Yes. Each app that you submit to us must adhere to the following content guidelines. If we determine that an app contains, facilitates, or promotes content that is prohibited by these guidelines, we will reject the app submission and notify you by using the email address associated with your developer account.

Please take a moment to familiarize yourself with a few examples of prohibited content:

  • Offensive Content: What we deem offensive is probably about what you would expect. We reserve the right to determine the appropriateness of all apps and to accept or reject any app at our discretion. We also have full discretion to publish maturity ratings for the apps.
  • Pornography: We prohibit apps containing pornography or hard-core material that depict graphic sexual acts or sexually explicit material. This includes full nudity contained in your application or marketing materials. We also don’t allow content that drives traffic to pornography sites.
  • Illegal Activity: Each app must comply with all applicable laws. We prohibit apps that promote or may lead to the production of an illegal item or illegal activity. Developers are responsible for researching to ensure that each app is in compliance with all local, state, national, and international laws.
  • Gambling with Real Currency: We prohibit apps that allow customers to participate in gambling activities with real currency (currency with actual monetary value). This does not include simulated gambling activities using virtual currency (currency with no actual monetary value).
  • Intellectual Property Infringement: We prohibit any app to which you do not have the necessary rights to make available in Amazon or that violates our Copyright Policy (see below).
  • Privacy/Publicity Infringement: We hold personal privacy in the highest regard. Therefore, we prohibit apps that infringe, or have the potential to infringe, upon an individual’s privacy, right of publicity, or that portray an individual in a false light. Celebrity images and/or celebrity names cannot be used for commercial purposes without permission of the celebrity or their management. This includes unauthorized celebrity image collections.
  • Copyright Policy: Amazon’s Mobile App Distribution Program Agreement requires that you have ownership or license rights to the code and content (including advertising) included in any app. Do not upload any app if you do not have the rights listed in the Distribution Agreement. You are responsible for ensuring that you hold necessary rights to distribute the app through Amazon. If you are unsure if you own all rights to the app, please consult an attorney.
  • Country-Specific Restrictions: Some countries that we sell our apps in may have more restrictive standards than other countries for what qualifies as “Offensive Content,” “Pornography,” or “Illegal Activity.” We reserve the right to restrict any app or IAP item from sale in any country where the sale or distribution of that app’s content would violate that country’s laws, cultural norms, or sensitivities.

 

Q: Where is the best place to publish if I have an app for my book, bookshelf, or bookstore?

The place to publish your books is Kindle Direct Publishing. Kindle Direct Publishing allows you to reach millions of customers who already use Kindle devices and Kindle reading apps for iPhone, iPad, Android, and more.

You can also enroll your book in KDP Select, and help your customers discover your books by making them available through the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, and reach the growing number of Amazon Prime customers around the world.

Q: Why do I need to declare whether or not my app is directed to children under 13?

In order to address changes to the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) that became effective in July 2013, apps that are directed at children under 13 based on the various factors described in COPPA are not eligible to join the Amazon Mobile Ad Network. If you are uncertain whether your app is directed at children under 13 under COPPA, please see the FTC guidance and FAQ on these issues and for related COPPA questions.  

Q: Will Amazon tell me when my app is approved?

Yes.You can track the approval status of your app at any time by signing in to the developer portal and finding your app in the Dashboard on the home page. We will also notify you by email when the status of your app changes.

You will receive an email when:

  • Your app has been accepted into the Amazon Mobile App Distribution program and will be made available on the date you specified in the portal.
  • We require more information to complete the testing process. (We might be missing a critical asset or have found that a critical asset does not meet Amazon’s specifications.) We will provide you with details on the information we require to resume testing.
  • Your app has failed our testing process. We will provide you with details on the failure and will also provide guidance on resubmission.

 

Q: What are the application status codes?

  • Incomplete: You have not yet completed your app submission. The app is missing some of the fields required for submission to Amazon.
  • Ready to Submit: The app is ready to be submitted to Amazon. You have full access to change the metadata and binary until you click Submit.
  • Submitted: The app has been submitted for review, and it can no longer be edited. At this time you can cancel the request for review and continue to edit your app.
  • Under Review: The app is being reviewed by Amazon and can no longer be edited.
  • Approved: The app has completed at least one stage of the testing and content review process. It may soon be ready for publication at Amazon.
  • Live: The app is now live on the store.
  • Pending: When the app is in this status, you will receive an email from our team explaining why the review process for your app was paused and asking you to perform some action. You must address the relevant metadata or binary issues before your app can successfully continue through the process.
  • Rejected: The app has not passed the review process. You will receive an email from Amazon explaining the reasons for the failed approval.
  • Suppressed: The app was live at one point but currently is no longer on the store.

 

Q: Does my use of the home screen carousel on Fire phone need to comply with a content policy?

Yes. We want to help Fire phone users engage more quickly and seamlessly with their apps by allowing apps to display relevant information and actions through the hero widget on the home screen carousel. Here are some examples of information and actions that your app may display through the hero widget:

  • Notice of app updates and other app notifications
  • Location check-in
  • Recently added or accessed content
  • Content playback controls
  • App progress
  • Links to chapters/episodes, levels/worlds, or leaderboards/achievements in the app
  • Previous in-app search results
  • Content lists, such as recently received messages
  • Photo thumbnails
  • In-app items or promotions

 

You may not use the hero widget to display advertising or promote any product or service other than your app, except you may promote the availability of your other apps in the Amazon Appstore if you have used at least the first two hero widget slots to display information and actions relevant to your app.

Q: Are there separate ratings criteria for apps published in the Brazil marketplace?

Yes. The Brazilian Ministry of Justice requires Amazon to display badging and ratings according to local laws for all apps published in the Brazilian store. Amazon assigns the rating for the Brazilian marketplace, where applicable, based on the information you provide to us during the regular app submission process.

Q: Are there any specific restrictions that apply to keyboard apps?

Yes. Keyboard apps must function whether or not an end user's device is connected to the Internet. Any tracking of user activity (including keystroke logging) through a keyboard app must be clearly disclosed to end users and may be used only to provide or improve the app’s keyboard functionality (and not, for example, for advertising purposes).

Submission: Device Targeting

Q: What is device targeting?

Device targeting allows you to target specific devices with different versions of your app so that you can tailor your APK for variable features such as screen size and density, OpenGL compression format, and Android API level.  You may individually target Amazon devices. All non-Amazon Android devices, including BlackBerry 10 devices, may be targeted by a single APK.

Q: How does device targeting help me?

  • Better search relevancy for your app. Instead of having multiple apps (such as an HD version and a SD version) for a single title, your app’s Customer Reviews, page views, and downloads are consolidated in a single app—pushing your app up in search and relevancy rankings.
  • Reduced customer confusion. Customers won’t be confused by multiple device-specific versions of your app.
  • Device-specific feature optimization. You can tailor your APK for screen size and density, OpenGL compression format, and API version.

 

Q: How do I format versionCode and versionName for an app using device targeting?

  • For each APK in the app instance, specify the android:versionName string that you want the user to see for the APK.
  • Specify a different android:versionCode integer for each APK in the app instance.
  • For an app update, increase android:versionCode as required by the Android platform.

For more information about versioning your apps, see Versioning your Applications in the Android documentation.

 

Submission: International Distribution

Q: I already offer apps on Amazon. How can I make my apps available in all countries?

You don’t have to do anything—Amazon sells your apps and their in-app purchasable (IAP) items internationally. They are submitted for sale in our international marketplaces when we launch Amazon Apps internationally. Amazon automatically converts the base list price of your apps and IAP items into a marketplace list price in the local currency.

Customers will see your apps and IAP items in English, and your apps and IAP items will be available automatically in all countries (and all future countries) where Amazon offers apps.

Q: What if I don’t want my app to be available in a specific country?

Sign in to the developer portal and select the My Apps tab. Once there, select the app and then select the Availability and Pricing tab. On this tab, clear the check box for any country in which you don't want your app to be sold.

Q: How does international pricing work?

Amazon uses the base list price that you set for your app in the developer portal to calculate a list price in the currency of each marketplace.

Q: How do I change the list price of my app in an international marketplace?

Sign in to the developer portal and select the My Apps tab. Once there, select the app and then click the Availability and Pricing tab. Edit list prices for each marketplace by selecting the radio button for I’ll set my own list prices. Selecting the button exposes the option to change the list price for each marketplace.

Q: How does Amazon split the revenue from international sales?

Amazon pays developers 70% of the marketplace list price for all sales.

Q: Do I always get paid based on the marketplace list price?

List prices include any value-added tax (VAT) or similar taxes included in the purchase price, but the taxes are excluded from the list price for royalty calculation purposes. For example, if the list price for your app is 1.15 Euros, and the price we show buyers includes a 15% VAT, the list price for royalty calculation purposes is 1.00 Euro.

Q: The default language setting for apps is English. How do I change the product information language for my app for different countries?

To provide a localized description of your app and in-app purchasable (IAP) items, sign in to the developer portal and select the My Apps tab. Select an app, and then select the Description tab. On that tab, click Edit, and then click Save and Add a Translation. Languages you can add are English (U.K.), French, German, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Portuguese (Brazil), and English (Australia). After adding a translation, click Save or Save and Add a Translation.

Submission: PC and Mac Software

Q: Can I use the developer portal to publish my PC and Mac digital software and video games?

Yes. By using the portal, you can submit PC and Mac digital software and video games, as well as mobile apps. To get started, go to https://developer.amazon.com/welcome to create a developer account. Use the self-service submission process to submit your titles to Amazon.

Q: How do I submit my PC and Mac digital software or video games?

When you sign in to your account on the developer portal, you will be guided through a step-by-step submission process. Learn more here.

Q: I have an account on the developer portal. Do I need to create a new account for submitting digital software or video games?

No. Use your existing account to submit PC and Mac digital software and video games.

Q: Can I upload my PC and Mac digital software and video games and have them appear as a pre-order on Amazon.com?

No. Amazon does not currently support pre-orders for these items. If you want to submit digital software or video game titles for pre-order, please contact your Vendor Manager or make a Contact Us request.

Q: Can I use Security Profiles or GameCircle services?

No. At this time, these services don't support PC and Mac digital software and video games.

Q: Does Amazon support in-game purchases or direct-to-account PC and Mac video games?

Not at this time.

Q: Can I distribute my PC and Mac digital software and video games outside of the U.S.?

Not at this time.

Q: How do I submit the same digital software and video games for both PC and Mac platforms?

Because Amazon reviews each version of your digital software or video game separately, you must go through the submission process for each platform version.

Q: How do I upload product keys for PC and Mac digital software and video games?

After submitting your digital software and video games for approval, you can upload product keys in the developer portal by clicking My Apps and then Key Management.

Q: What is the approval process for digital software and video games?

Amazon reviews your submitted digital software and video games before publishing them. Your account dashboard in the developer portal displays the status of your submissions. Amazon will notify you by email if it discovers any issues with a submission.

Q: May I submit a digital software or video game product that has a product code only and no binary?

Yes. On the Binary & Keys tab, select “No” for “Are you distributing binaries?” and “Yes” for “Are you distributing product keys?”

Q: What is an academic product?

Academic products are specially-priced offerings specifically for qualifying higher education students, faculty, and staff. Customers are required to provide proof of current academic status at the time of purchase, and Amazon verifies their status with a designated third-party service.

Q: What is an online code or online game code?

An online code or online game code is a product activation key that your customers receive after purchasing your product. The code is used to authorize the use of your software or game on a Mac or PC.

Submission: Releasing New Versions

Q: How do I update my app?

Users with appropriate permissions can submit binary updates and bug fixes through the developer portal.

To update an app, in the portal, on the My Apps tab, click the name of the app to open the general information page for the current version of the app. Click Upcoming Version, and you will be guided through the update process.

Notes:

  • Apps cannot be updated while they are in the Amazon review process.
  • If you must change the media assets or other assets associated with your app, this content must be edited and saved by a person with the administrator or marketer role before the new version is submitted by a developer.

 

Submission: Support and Troubleshooting

Q: I have an app in Google Play. What should I do to ensure the app works on Amazon?

Make sure that your app does not include any copy protection functionality (you have the option to apply Amazon’s DRM technology—see the FAQ section titled "Submitting Apps: Binary Info". You should also take a moment to understand the different signing options available to you (developer signed or Amazon signed) and choose the option that works best for your users.

Q: Do you have any pre-release testing?

Amazon tests your apps before publishing them, but this testing does not replace pre-release testing. You should complete your own pre-release testing before submitting your app or game to Amazon. Once your app is submitted, you must wait for it to be approved by Amazon before you can test the final approved version.

Q: There is a review of my app that I feel is inappropriate. How can I resolve this?

Click the Report abuse link below the review. The information you submit will be reviewed by Amazon, and we will take appropriate action.

Q: How do I terminate my App Distribution and Services Agreement?

Our goal is to establish long-term relationships with developers, and we encourage you to contact us before terminating your distribution agreement to see if we can improve your Amazon Mobile App Distribution Program experience.

If you would like to terminate your distribution agreement, please send an email with your developer name, contact information, and a list of your apps to apps-notices@amazon.com with a carbon-copy (CC:) to contracts-legal@amazon.com. It can take up to 10 days from our receipt of your email for your account to be officially terminated.

All requests to terminate an App Distribution and Services Agreement are final, and all sales of your applications on Amazon will be suspended. You will have limited access to the developer portal after your distribution agreement has been terminated.

Q: How do I contact Amazon if I have questions about my account?

Please use the Contact Us form.

Submission: Web Apps

Q: How do I get started with web apps?

Amazon now accepts HTML5 apps and mobile websites to help expand the reach of your web apps to customers in nearly 200 countries worldwide on Fire and Android devices. By submitting your web app to the program, you can grow your business and make money.

Q: How do I test my web app?

With the Amazon Web App Tester, you experience your app or site in a production-like environment without first submitting it to our store. The Web App Tester also offers a suite of tools to help you debug your web apps to ensure they’ll look and work great on Fire tablets, Fire phone, and Android devices. The tester is available in the Amazon Appstore for your Fire tablets, Fire phone, or Android device.

Q: How do I install the Amazon Web App Tester?

Get installation instructions here.

Q: How do I submit a web app?

The developer portal will guide you through the submission process. Get instructions here.

Q: Can I make money with web apps on Amazon?

Yes. You can earn revenue by either setting a base list price for your web app in the 'Availability & Pricing' tab during the submission flow or by selling digital content and subscriptions—such as in-game currency, expansion packs, upgrades, magazine issues, and more— using the Amazon In-App Purchasing API for JavaScript. The In-App Purchasing API is available as part of the Amazon Web App Development Resources. It is provided as a ZIP file that contains the JavaScript files that are required for your application to access the necessary Amazon services.

Q: How can I make my web app look good on all devices?

Visit our web app best practices page for detailed information on making sure your web app looks and works great.

Q: What is the Web App Runtime?

Amazon's web app runtime is GPU-accelerated and optimized for fluid performance on Amazon devices. Built on the open-source Chromium project, the runtime supports the latest HTML5 features and includes standards-based extensions that give you access to offline storage and to location sensors. With the web app runtime, your web apps can achieve fluidity and performance comparable to that of native apps. Read more about Web App Runtime Feature Support.

Payments: General Info

Q: I am a U.S. developer. How do I get paid for my Amazon sales ?

We make monthly payments for Amazon sales. You will receive a separate payment for each marketplace in which your apps, software, or video games are sold. For electronic payments, the currency of your payment is determined by your bank’s location. Provided your balance due exceeds the payment threshold, we will make payment approximately (a) 30 days after the end of the calendar month in which the sale of a mobile app occurred, or (b) 45 days after the end of the calendar month in which the sale of digital software or a video game occurred. For example, we would make payment for sales of mobile apps that occurred in April at the end of May, which is approximately 30 days after the end of April.

In the U.S., we pay by using electronic funds transfer (EFT), and we make payment when your balance due is more than $0.00.

Q: I am an international developer. How do I get paid for my Amazon sales?

Developers in supported countries can receive electronic payments from Amazon. Depending on your bank’s location, you may be eligible for either direct deposit or wire payments. If your bank’s location is not eligible for electronic payments or if you do not opt to be paid by electronic payments, your payment will be made by check. You will receive one check per marketplace, issued in the currency of sale. Checks for sales on our Japan and Brazil marketplaces will be issued in U.S. dollars.

To determine if you are eligible for electronic payments, sign in to your account on the developer portal and select your bank’s location from the Where is your bank/financial institution? drop-down menu. Based on this selection, if electronic payment is available, you will be prompted to choose between electronic payment or check. You will receive a separate payment for each marketplace in which your apps are sold. For electronic payments, the currency of your payment is determined by your bank’s location. Please consult your financial institution to determine if there are any fees associated with receiving electronic payments.

Prior to Amazon issuing a payment for a marketplace, the payment must meet the applicable threshold based on your payment type and the currency of that marketplace:

  • Direct Deposit*: $0 USD, €0 EUR, £0 GBP, ¥0 JPY, $0 CAD, or $R20 BRL
  • Wire: $100 USD, €100 EUR, £100 GBP, ¥10,000 JPY, or $100 CAD
  • Check: $100 USD, €100 EUR, £100 GBP, or $100 CAD

*For sales on the Brazil marketplaces, the threshold for international Direct Deposit payments is based on a $100 USD equivalent for all developers outside of Brazil.

Provided your balance due exceeds the payment threshold, we will remit payment approximately (a) 30 days after the end of the calendar month in which the sale of a mobile app occurred, or (b) 45 days after the end of the calendar month in which the sale of digital software or a video game occurred. For example, we would remit payment for sales of mobile apps that occurred in April at the end of May , which is approximately 30 days after the end of April.

Q: I am a developer in Japan. How will I be paid for my international Amazon sales and my sales on the Japan marketplace?

Developers in Japan can now enter their banking information to be paid by wire or electronic funds transfer for international and domestic sales. Note that banks in Japan may impose fees when receiving electronic payments.

To enter your banking information, sign in to your account on the developer portal and on the Settings tab go to Payment Information. Respond Yes to the question Do you plan to monetize apps?, and you will be prompted to indicate the location of your bank and to enter your banking information.

Q: I am not eligible for electronic payments. How will I be paid for my Amazon app sales?

If you are not eligible for electronic payments, you will be paid by check in the currency of the Amazon marketplace where your apps are sold. You will receive one check per marketplace in which your apps are sold. Checks for sales on the Japan and Brazil marketplaces will be issued in U.S. dollars.

Q: Does Amazon charge a fee for payment of royalties by check?

If your bank is in a location that is eligible to receive electronic payments but you opt to be paid by check, you will be assessed a fee of $8, £8, or €8 per check in the same currency as the check you receive. Developers with a bank location that is not eligible for electronic payments will be paid by check, and no fee will be assessed.

Any check fees are shown in the Payment Cost column of your payment report, which is in the developer portal under the Reporting tab.

If you are currently being paid by check and want to be paid electronically, first determine if you are eligible for electronic payments by signing in to the portal and selecting your bank’s location from the Where is your bank/financial institution? drop-down menu. Based on this selection, if electronic payment is available, you can select electronic payment as your payment method. For electronic payments, the currency of your payment is determined by your bank's location. Please consult your financial institution to determine if there are any fees associated with receiving electronic payments.

Q: Are there any payment thresholds when receiving payments?

Prior to Amazon issuing a payment for a marketplace, the payment must meet the applicable threshold based on your payment type and the currency of that marketplace:
  • Direct Deposit*: $0 USD, €0 EUR, £0 GBP, ¥0 JPY, $0 CAD, or $R20 BRL
  • Wire: $100 USD, €100 EUR, £100 GBP, ¥10,000 JPY, or $100 CAD
  • Check: $100 USD, €100 EUR, £100 GBP, or $100 CAD

*For sales on the Brazil marketplaces, the threshold for international Direct Deposit payments is based on a $100 USD equivalent for all developers located outside of Brazil.

Q: What will I get paid based on the marketplace list prices?

List prices include any VAT or similar taxes that are included in the purchase price displayed to end users, but those taxes are excluded from the list price for royalty calculation purposes. For example, if the list price for your app for an Amazon marketplace is 1.15 Euros and we display prices to an end user of that Amazon Marketplace inclusive of  a15% VAT, the list price for royalty calculation purposes is 1.00 Euro.

Q: Where can I see my payments?

The developer portal displays a payment report that shows the payments made to each developer. Reporting also shows expanded reports for each available marketplace and includes any applicable withholding taxes, payment costs, and exchange rates.

Q: Will you withhold any taxes from payments made to international developers for US marketplace sales?

U.S. tax law requires us to report royalty payments made to entities and persons resident outside of the United States, and may require us to withhold and remit taxes on such royalty payments to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Although you may also be required to report and pay taxes to your own government, we are not involved in that process. You should consult a tax advisor if you have any questions on these requirements.

Determining Tax Rates

The standard tax-withholding rate applied to royalty payments made to residents outside of the United States is 30%. If you are a non-U.S. developer and your country of residence has an existing income tax treaty with the U.S., provided you furnish us with a valid IRS Form W8-BEN (and/or other required documentation), you may be eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. tax withholding on the royalty payments you receive.

Please note that we will provide both you and the IRS with an IRS Form 1042-S each year, which will provide detail regarding U.S. taxes withheld and remitted to the IRS during that year.

Please refer to the "Tax Identity Interview" section for additional details on how to provide your tax identity information to Amazon.

Q: For European Union marketplace sales, will you withhold any taxes from payments made to international developers?

No. We will not withhold any taxes from royalty payments made to entities and persons for sales from our EU Marketplaces.

Payments: Tax Identity Interview

Q: What is the tax identity interview?

The Tax Identity Interview, located in the developer portal in the Settings section under Tax Identity, is a self-service interview process designed to guide you through entering your required taxpayer information and validating your W-9 or W-8BEN form.

You can find more information about the tax identity interview in the Tax Identity Interview Guide.

Q: I am a U.S. taxpayer. What information do I need to provide to Amazon?

Amazon requires all app developers to provide valid taxpayer identification information before they can submit paid apps, apps that contain in-app products, apps that use the Amazon Mobile Ads API, or apps that otherwise generate royalties or other payments to you from Amazon.

Completing the tax identity interview in the developer portal provides Amazon with the appropriate tax identity in the form of a W-9 or W-8BEN form.

For U.S. taxpayers, a TIN (taxpayer identification number) is required by the IRS for the administration of tax laws. In most cases, your TIN is either an Employer Identification Number (EIN) or a Social Security Number (SSN).

Q: I am an international app developer. I pay taxes in my own country, not the United States. Do I need to provide any information to Amazon?

Yes, Amazon requires all app developers to provide valid taxpayer identification information. Completing the tax identity interview in the Amazon developer portal provides Amazon the appropriate tax identity in the form of a W-9 or W-8 form.

Q: I am setting up my account for a non-profit, tax-exempt organization. Do these regulations apply to me?

Yes. Amazon requires all app developers, including non-profit or tax-exempt organizations, to provide valid taxpayer identification information. Completing the tax identity interview in the developer portal provides Amazon with the appropriate tax identity in the form of a W-9 or W-8BEN form.

Q: I am not a U.S. app developer, and I don’t have a U.S. Taxpayer Identification Number. Can I provide my foreign tax ID in the tax identity interview?

We do request your foreign tax identification number during the interview. However, if you are eligible for a tax treaty withholding rate, you must also provide a valid U.S. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) during the interview.

Q: What happens if I don’t provide the required information?

You must provide your taxpayer identification information to become eligible to publish paid apps, apps that contain in-app products, apps that use the Amazon Mobile Ads API, or apps that otherwise generate royalties or other payments to you by Amazon.

If you already provided your taxpayer identification information and received notification that the information is not valid, you must complete the tax identity interview with valid information within 30 days to avoid your apps being made unavailable for customers to purchase.

Q: I completed the tax identity interview. When will I know if the information I have submitted is valid?

Validation can take up to about three weeks. After you update your tax identity information, the Tax Identity section in the Settings tab will display Provided and Pending Validation. This message means that you have entered your tax information successfully and that Amazon has received the information. At this time, there are no other actions for you to complete.

If we detect that your tax information does not match IRS records, you will be emailed with further instructions for updating your tax information. If you receive notification that the information you supplied is not valid, you will be required to complete the tax identity interview with valid information within 30 days to avoid your apps being made unavailable for customers to purchase.

Q: Why might information that I supplied in the tax identify interview not be valid?

The information you enter in the tax identity interview is compared with IRS database records. We cannot detect why information is determined to be not valid, or advise you on the specific issue with the information you entered. However, here are some things to consider before repeating the tax identity interview:

  • If you are providing a Social Security Number (SSN), use the information that appears on your Social Security card.
  • If you are providing an International Tax Identification Number (ITIN), use the number you received from the IRS when your ITIN was issued.
  • If you are completing the information as a business and are providing a business name, use the name that appears on your CP 575 A notice from the IRS.
  • Misspelling your name, not including your middle initial or middle name, or entering an incorrect Tax Identification Number may cause tax identity information to not match IRS records.

For your security, we will not be able to update your account records if you provide your tax identity over the phone or via email. We also cannot disclose to you the tax identity information that was not valid that you entered in the tax identity interview.

Check your records to confirm your tax identity, and enter this information in the tax identity interview.

Payments: Reporting

Q: Where can I find my sales report?

Find sales reports on the Reporting tab of the developer portal. Sales reports are provided for your convenience only and are not binding. Sales reports may not reflect refunds, adjustments, or taxes that may affect your actual royalty payments.

Access to the Reporting tab is based on the role or roles you were assigned when your portal account was created.

Q: Where can I find my earnings report?

Find earnings reports on the Reporting tab of the developer portal. Earnings reports may not reflect actual disbursement values when royalties are subject to tax withholding or payment thresholds have not been met.

Access to the Reporting tab is based on the role or roles you were assigned when your portal account was created. 

Q: Where can I find my payment report?

Find payment reports on the Reporting tab of the developer portal. Payment reports reflect actual disbursements.

Access to the Reporting tab is based on the role or roles you were assigned when your portal account was created. 

Q: What is the difference between sales, earnings, payment, and engagement reports?

Sales reports display trends in sales and returns during standard or custom time periods. Data in sales reports is updated every few hours, but does not reflect processed financial data for the current month. These reports should not be used in place of the monthly earnings reports, because return and refund data in sales reports are logged at the time of the return transaction and are not tied to the original order. Daily breakdowns are available through CSV export.

Earnings reports display the sales, refunds, app earnings, and adjustment data used to calculate royalties earned during a given month. Data in earnings reports is released on a monthly basis, once royalties earned in the previous month have been processed and approved. Monthly summary information is available in the developer portal. Daily breakdowns are available through CSV export.

Payment reports display the actual disbursement of funds from Amazon. Monthly summary information is available in the developer portal in the payment reports section.

Engagement reports display usage trends. Engagement reports are updated every 12 hours and revenue data is updated every 24 hours. Engagement reports provide information on installs, uninstalls, active devices, sessions, average revenue per device, and retention. All reports are available through CSV export.

Q: Where can I find information about my earnings?

Earnings information is displayed in earnings reports. Monthly summary information is available in the developer portal. Daily breakdowns are available through CSV export.

Access to earnings reports is based on the role or roles you were assigned when your portal account was created.

Q: Can I access information on my apps over periods shorter than one month?

Yes. Monthly, weekly, daily, and hourly data is available in different forms to relevant roles through standard and custom time periods.

Sales reports provide the ability to look at trends in sales and orders over months, weeks, and days, using standard and custom date ranges.

Earnings reports summarize data on a monthly level (by default) in the developer portal. Daily summaries for a given month can also be obtained through CSV export.

Q: What happens to earnings that haven’t met the payment threshold?

Earnings that do not meet the payment threshold accrue in Amazon’s accounts payable records as a carryover balance. Once the carryover balance plus the current month’s earnings exceed the payment threshold, Amazon will pay you the money.

Q: What’s the difference between an order and a download?

An order is a successful app purchase per unique customer ID. Once a customer has ordered an app, they can download it one or more times to a device by using the Amazon client.

Q: In what time zone are sales, earnings, and payment reports displayed?

All metrics are captured in the marketplace’s local time zone:

  • Amazon.com - PST
  • Amazon.co.uk - UTC
  • Amazon.de - UTC
  • Amazon.es - UTC
  • Amazon.fr - UTC
  • Amazon.it - UTC
  • Amazon.jp - JST

 

Q: How is a day defined in sales, earnings, and payment reports?

A day is defined as 00:00:00 AM to 11:59:59 PM. The time zones for each marketplace can be found in the question "In what time zone are sales, earnings, and payment reports displayed?"

Q: Where can I find crash reports?

Crash reports are displayed on the Reporting tab of the developer portal.

Access to the Reporting tab is based on the role or roles you were assigned when your portal account was created.

Q: Are all types of crashes reported?

No. We currently report only Java Virtual Machine (JVM) crashes. We do not report freezes or native crashes.

Q: How many days of crash data are available to me?

The crash reporting tool currently reports up to 30 days of historical data.

Q: In what time zone are crashes recorded?

All crashes are captured in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is the same as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

Q: How is a day defined in crash reports?

In crash reports, a day is defined as 00:00:00 a.m. to 11:59:59 p.m. (UTC)

Q: I don’t recognize some of the Amazon devices listed in my crash report. How do I identify these devices?

You can find Amazon devices’ Android build models in our Fire Tablet Device and Feature Specifications documentation, listed under android.os.Build.MODEL in the Specifications table.

Q: Where can I find my engagement reports?

Find engagement reports on the Reporting tab of the developer portal. Accounts assigned the Developer role cannot access financial data such as average revenue per device.

Q: Is integration with an API required to receive engagement reports?

No.

Q: Why don’t I see any engagement reports data for my app?

Apps submitted and published after October 25, 2012 support engagement reports. If your app was submitted before October 25, 2012, then updating or resubmitting your app will enable Amazon to begin collecting data for engagement reports.

Amazon does not display data for any day in which an app has five or fewer Daily Active Devices (DAD), or for apps that participate in the Kindle Freetime Unlimited program.

If your app meets all of these conditions and still does not display engagement reports, please contact us at engagement-reports@amazon.com.

Q: Which devices send data for engagement reports?

Fire tablets (except for 1st Gen), Fire phone, Fire TV, and Android devices with the Amazon Appstore for Android installed all send data for engagement reports.

Promotion: Marketing Your App

Q: How do I market my app or game at Amazon?

Listing your app at Amazon exposes it to tens of millions of Amazon customers who can spread the word about your brands and products. Amazon’s automated and targeted marketing provides a unique and personalized experience for every Amazon customer. Algorithms use historical customer behavior to recommend products to each customer. Optimizing the marketing content that you provide to Amazon with your app submission will maximize your exposure. Learn more about optimizing the marketing content for your app, including writing effective app descriptions, incorporating video and screen shots, and submitting promotional images for the Billboards feature on our developer blog.

Q: How do I ask for featured marketing placement?

Submit your app to our marketing team. We highlight apps through our storefronts on mobile devices, Fire tablets, and Amazon.com, and through marketing vehicles such as email, Facebook, and Twitter. Examples of featured placements include "Highly Rated Apps and Games” and "Featured New Releases.” Your app will be considered for these placements. Your app may also be considered for seasonal placements, such as summer travel, back to school, or holiday apps.

Please share details about your app with us by completing the marketing request form.

Q: How do I link to/from my app for marketing purposes?

Amazon-approved marketing assets and brand, trademark, and marketing guidelines are here: Trademarks and Badges.

Q: What are the requirements for promotional images?

Promotional images should be 1024 x 500 px and in PNG or JPG format. We recommend that you make your image colorful to catch the eye of customers, and choose images that promote the essence of your app and brand. Text on your promotional image should be large, simple, and readable. Do not add the price to the image or any discount call outs, and do not submit screenshots as promotional art.

Promotion: Amazon Coins

Q: What is Amazon Coins?

Amazon Coins is a virtual currency that customers can use to purchase apps, games, and in-app items on Amazon devices, the Amazon Appstore for Android and the Amazon website.

Q: If a customer uses Amazon Coins to purchase my app, does that change how I am paid?

No. Developers receive the same royalty payments regardless of the payment method the customer chooses. One Amazon Coin on the US. com marketplace is worth $0.01. On the Germany, France, Italy, Spain marketplaces one Amazon Coin is worth €0,01 and on the UK marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth £0,01. On the Japan marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth [ ] and on the Australia marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth A$0.01.  

So, for example, if an app on the UK marketplace costs £2.99, it costs 299 Amazon Coins. Similarly, if an app on the US marketplace costs $2.99, it costs 299 Amazon Coins. When a user purchases an app by using Amazon Coins, we will pay the developer royalty in the currency of the customer’s country.

Q: In what countries can customers use Amazon Coins?

Amazon Coins may be used by customers to purchase apps available for sale on the US, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and Australia marketplaces. One Amazon Coin on the US. com marketplace is worth $0.01. On the Germany, France, Italy, Spain marketplaces one Amazon Coin is worth €0,01 and on the UK marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth £0,01. On the Japan marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth ¥1 and on the Australia marketplace, one Amazon Coin is worth A$0.01.

Q: Which apps and games can be purchased with Amazon Coins?

Customers can spend their Amazon Coins on apps and games sold on Amazon devices, the Amazon Appstore for Android and the Amazon website.

Q: How do I make my digital items available to be purchased with Amazon Coins?

If your app or game is available for sale on at least one member of the current Fire family, no additional work is required on your part to make your digital items purchasable with Amazon Coins.

Q: How do I enable customers to use Amazon Coins for in-app purchases?

Amazon Coins are simply another payment method honored by the in-app purchase flow. No additional work is required from developers who use the latest Amazon Mobile App SDK.

Q: Can customers use their Amazon Coins to buy in-game currencies?

Yes. Customers can purchase in-game currencies with Amazon Coins.

Q: Can subscriptions be purchased with Amazon Coins?

No. Customers cannot purchase subscriptions with Amazon Coins.

Tablets: Fire Tablets

Q: How do I submit my app for Fire tablets?

To submit your app for Fire tablets, create an account on the developer portal and submit your app through the portal.

If you already have an app published at Amazon, we will automatically review your app for Fire tablets.

Q: Will my app work on Fire tablets?

Your app must be compatible with each tablet’s specifications. See the Fire Tablet Development Resources for detailed device and feature specifications.

Your app must comply with our content guidelines as described in Approval Process and Content Guidelines on this page. We also recommend that you test your app on your own and submit an update if you discover any problems.

Q: Are Fire tablet test devices available for developers?

Amazon does not provide test devices for developers.

Fire tablets are available for purchase on Amazon retail sites. Check the product detail pages for country-specific availability.

Note that many apps can be testing using a virtual Amazon device, as described in Testing without an Amazon Device.

Q: Can I get a discount on Fire tablets?

No.

Q: My app uses Google’s in-app purchasing technology. Will it work on Fire tablets?

No. Services such as Google’s in-app purchasing technology require access to Google Mobile Services, which do not work on Fire tablets. For in-app purchasing, Amazon offers an In-App Purchasing API that makes it easy for you to offer digital content and subscriptions in your apps.

For information about the Amazon services that you can use on Fire tablets instead of Google Mobile Services, see Submitting an Android App.

Q: Will Kindle Development Kit apps work on Fire devices?

No. The Kindle Development Kit provides rich APIs, tools, and documentation to help you create active content for E Ink Kindles. The Fire tablets support apps designed for Android devices only, not E Ink Kindles. For more information on the Kindle Development Kit for Active Content, please visit the KDK home page.

Q: What specific features do Fire tablets support?

See the Fire Tablet Development Resources for detailed device and feature specifications.

Q: How do I get my app marketed on Fire tablets?

See Marketing Your App.

Q: How can I access additional Amazon digital services?

Q: How can I get more information about Fire tablets?

Please use the Contact Us form to send us your questions.

Tablets: FreeTime

Q: What is FreeTIme?

FreeTime is a feature for parents and kids that is available for free on Fire tablets. FreeTime optimizes the Fire tablet's ease of use and vast selection for kids. With FreeTime, kids have access to books, movies, TV shows, apps, and games that their parents have pre-selected for them.

FreeTime gives each child a personalized experience by supporting up to six child profiles per Amazon account. In less than a minute, parents can create a child's profile, set a time limit, and select appropriate content based on age and interests. Whispersync works independently for each profile, making sure that one child’s last page read doesn’t change if a second child reads the same book.

When kids use FreeTime, only the content they are allowed to use is visible—nothing is crossed out or labeled as not allowed. This helps kids navigate their options and gives them an experience entirely their own.

Q: How do I participate in FreeTime?

As a developer, you don’t need to do anything to participate in FreeTime other than build great products. Parents will choose which apps to include in their children’s personalized experience.

Q: What is FreeTime Unlimited?

FreeTime Unlimited is a monthly subscription service that provides unlimited access to kids' entertainment, including thousands of child-appropriate books, movies, apps, and games. Kids can access FreeTime Unlimited content on Fire tablets by using the free FreeTime app.

Q: How do I participate in FreeTime Unlimited?

Content included in FreeTime Unlimited is curated. If you want your apps included in FreeTime Unlimited, please send an email to familyapp-review@amazon.com with the following information:

  • Your name, company/developer name, and your preferred contact information
  • A link to your company website
  • A link to the app you would like to submit for consideration

 

Tablets: Whispercast

Q: What is Whispercast?

Whispercast is a free online tool that helps organizations manage their Kindle devices and Fire tablets, and procure and distribute content and documents. Whispercast simplifies the process of managing numerous devices by offering organizations the ability to:
  • Procure books, documents, and apps and distribute them to users
  • Centrally manage devices from anywhere in the world
  • Apply device settings to all of their devices at once, including Wi-Fi network and proxy settings, password requirements, and device restrictions

 

Q: How does Whispercast impact me as a developer?

Because Whispercast makes it easier for organizations to distribute content, developers have the potential to sell more apps.

Q: How do I make sure that my apps are available in Whispercast?

You don’t need to do anything, if your apps are available on Amazon. All Fire tablet-compatible applications available on Amazon are available in Whispercast.

Fire TV

Q: How do I submit my app for Amazon Fire TV?

To submit your app for Amazon Fire TV, create an account on the Amazon Apps & Games Developer Portal and submit your app through the portal.

If you already have an app published at Amazon, update that app to include a separate binary APK for Amazon Fire TV.  See Using Device Targeting for more information.

Q: Will my app work on Amazon Fire TV?

Your app must be compatible with the Amazon Fire TV specifications. See Device Specifications  for detailed device and feature specifications for Fire TV.

Your app must comply with our content guidelines, as described in Approval Process and Content Guidelines on this page. We also recommend that you test your app on your own and submit an update if you discover any problems.

Q: Can I sideload my app onto Amazon Fire TV for testing?

Yes, with the Android Debug Bridge (ADB).  See Getting Started Developing Apps and Games for Fire TV for more information. 

Q: My app uses Google’s in-app purchasing technology. Will it work on Amazon Fire TV?

No. Services such as Google’s in-app purchasing API require access to Google Mobile Services, which do not work on Amazon Fire TV. For in-app purchasing, Amazon offers an In-App Purchasing API that makes it easy for you to offer digital content and subscriptions in your apps.

Q: Are Amazon Fire TV test devices available for developers?

Amazon does not provide test devices for developers.

Amazon Fire TV is available for purchase on Amazon retail sites in the US, UK, and Germany. Check the product detail pages for country-specific availability.

Q: What specific features does Amazon Fire TV support?

See Device Specifications for detailed device and feature specifications.

Q: How do I get my app marketed on Fire TV?

See Marketing Your App.

Q: How can I get more information about Amazon Fire TV?

Please use the Contact Us form to send us your questions.

Q: Are there any other criteria for distributing apps for Amazon Fire TV in Germany?

Yes. We do not permit apps to be distributed on Fire TV in Germany if they enable copying, recording, downloading, storing, or similar actions of any type of video content onto the Amazon Fire TV or any connected external storage. If we determine that an app contains this functionality, we will not make it available in Germany.

API: A/B Testing Service

Q: What is the A/B Testing service?

With the A/B Testing service, you can test different in-app experiences simultaneously, and understand which experience was more successful based on criteria you define. The service makes in-app A/B Testing simple by offering easy integration, web-based control, effortless scaling, and the ability to quickly release an improved experience without updating your app.

Q: Will A/B Testing work on any Android device?

A/B Testing can be used on any Android mobile device using OS 2.2 or higher. The service is currently only available for use in apps and games distributed through Amazon.

Q: Where can learn more about using the A/B Testing service?

Learn more about the A/B Testing service by clicking here.

API: Device Messaging

Q: What is Amazon Device Messaging?

Amazon Device Messaging (ADM) is a push-messaging solution that you can use to send messages to Amazon devices running your app. Your server software originates a message and sends it to ADM, and ADM delivers the message to a specified instance of your app.

Q: How do users see messages that I've sent?

What your app does with the messages is up to you. ADM is simply a transport mechanism, optimized to queue your messages and deliver them to a targeted instance of your app, even if your app isn’t running. For example, upon receiving a message, your app could send the message to the notification tray, display a custom user interface, or perform some other function specific to your needs.

Q: Which devices support ADM?

Fire phone and all Fire tablets except Kindle Fire (1st Generation) support ADM.

Q: Where is ADM available?

ADM is available everywhere that Amazon devices are sold. If a customer takes their Fire device to a country or region where the device is not sold, they still receive messages sent via ADM.

Q: How do I get started with ADM?

Understanding ADM provides a quick overview of how to work with ADM in your app and app servers. There is both a server-side component and a client-side component to using ADM.

API: GameCircle

Q: What is Amazon GameCircle?

Amazon GameCircle is a set of services that provide leaderboards, achievements, and Whispersync for Games functionality for games played on Amazon devices, generic Android devices, and iOS devices. iOS device support requires integration of Amazon GameCircle API 2.1 or API 2.2 (the current version). Amazon GameCircle increases customer engagement and enables game developers to spend less time on infrastructure and more time making great games.

Q: How can I start using the GameCircle API?

You can learn more and download the GameCircle API by visiting the GameCircle documentation.

Q: How does Whispersync for Games 2.x work?

Whispersync for Games enables you to get and set values in a data map.

  • Active sync events occur when you call the synchronize() method, and when a customer signs in to your game. However, syncing occurs even if you never call the synchronize() method, due to passive sync events.
  • Passive sync events occur any time that you choose to change game data, such as by setting a high score or accumulating number. Passive sync events are batched, rather than synced immediately. Whispersync throttles passive sync events to conserve network bandwidth and battery life.
  • With the DeveloperString data type, you can implement manual conflict resolution.
  • Whispersync easily manages offline scenarios involving mergeable data types.
  • You can model both simple and complex game data by using Whispersync’s syncable data types, and, if necessary, by nesting data maps.
  • You can test your Whispersync implementation by using a single test device. Whispersync doesn’t require nickname whitelisting. If the game is registered, Whispersync will work.

 

Q: Can customers sync between their Amazon devices and smartphones?

Yes, provided the smartphone runs Android version 2.3 or above or iOS 5.0 or above.

Q: Is there a charge for developers to use GameCircle?

At this time, GameCircle services are free.

Q: Which countries does Amazon GameCircle support?

Amazon GameCircle is available in more than 200 countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), Germany, Russia, Japan, Korea, and Brazil. In China and other non-supported countries, your customers can earn achievements and track their high scores without logging in; the data is stored locally and not synced to the cloud.

API: In-App Purchasing

Q: How do I get started with the In-App Purchasing API?

With the In-App Purchasing API, you can offer digital content and subscriptions—such as in-game currency, expansion packs, upgrades, and magazine issues—for purchase within apps. Learn more about this API by following the links on the In-App Purchasing page.

Q: How can I make in-app purchasing work on Amazon devices?

Amazon’s In-App Purchasing API is compatible with Amazon devices. Learn how to implement in-app purchasing by following the links on the In-App Purchasing page.

Q: My app uses Google’s in-app purchasing technology. Can I make it work on Amazon devices?

Google’s in-app purchasing technology requires access to Google Mobile Services, which do not work on Amazon devices. Amazon offers an In-App Purchasing API that makes it easy for you to offer digital content and subscriptions for purchase within your apps.  Learn more about this API by visiting the In-App Purchasing page.

Q: What is the revenue split with Amazon on in-app purchases?

Amazon pays developers 70% of the marketplace list price.

Q: How do I make my in-app purchasable items available in all countries?

Your in-app purchasable items are automatically available wherever your app is available now, or will be available in the future. By default, Amazon automatically converts the base list price of your IAP items into the local currency of each marketplace where they can be sold, and customers will see IAP items in English.

Q: What should I do if I do not want my in-app purchasable items sold on a particular marketplace?

You must specify that the app itself is not available in that specific marketplace. Sign in to the developer portal and go to the My Apps tab. Once there, select the app and click the Availability and Pricing tab. On this tab, clear the check box next to the marketplace in which you do not want your app sold.

Q: How do I change the prices of my IAP items in individual marketplaces?

Sign in to the developer portal and go to My Apps. Select an app, click In-App Items, and then click the Availability and Pricing tab. On that tab, select the radio button for I’ll set my own list prices, which exposes the option to edit the marketplace list prices by currency and marketplace.

Q: Can I link directly to the Amazon Client from within an app?

Yes. For information about how to link to the Amazon Client from an app, see Linking to the Amazon Client.

Q: Do you support parental controls for in-app purchasing?

Yes. Customers can require their Amazon password or a 4-digit PIN to complete in-app purchases. This setting is found under the Settings menu on the Amazon Apps storefront.

Q: What can be sold by using the In-App Purchasing API, and what is prohibited?

You can enable customers to buy digital products, content, or services—such as additional or enhanced functionality, in-app tools, data, or media content—intended to be accessed or used within an app.

You may not allow customers to purchase any other item, including:

  • Any goods or services that are to be used outside of the app itself (other than digital content accessible both inside and outside your app)
  • Any currency, credits, points, or other items or units that can be transferred from an end user to others and/or circulated as a medium of exchange
  • A prepaid account that creates cash balances that end users can use to purchase additional in-app products
  • Any gift cards
  • Any lottery tickets
  • Any event tickets, such as sporting event tickets or concert tickets
  • Any illegal and potentially illegal products
  • Any government documents, identification, birth certificates, passports, and licenses
  • Any unauthorized and unlicensed products
  • Any offensive material
  • Any items that infringe upon an end user’s privacy
  • Any insurance product
  • Any listings for services, warranties, and other similar offerings
  • Any product or service that is regulated by a government entity
  • Any item that otherwise violates Amazon’s general content guidelines for apps

 

Q: Are there any additional requirements that apply to my use of in-app purchasing?

Yes.  In addition to complying with our program policies on the types of in-app items you can offer, you must ensure that in-app purchasing in your app complies with all applicable laws.  Some of these laws limit how you can promote your in-app items.  For instance, consumer protection laws in the European Union prohibit direct exhortations to children to buy items.   They may also restrict how the purchase of in-app items can impact the functionality of your app.  Two references that can help you understand how EU consumer protection laws apply to in-app purchasing are the EU Consumer Protection Cooperation (CPC) Network’s position and the UK Competition and Markets Authority’s Principles for online and app-based games.

API: Maps

Q: What is the Amazon Maps API?

With the Amazon Maps API, you can add mapping capabilities to your app on Amazon devices.

Q: How do I use the Amazon Maps API?

  For detailed information, see the Maps API page.

Q: Where is the Amazon Maps API supported?

The Amazon Maps API is supported in countries where Amazon devices are sold, except for China and Japan.

Q: What countries can I map?

With the Amazon Maps API, you can display map tiles on a global basis. Most countries where Amazon devices are sold have detailed maps and geocoding services. For information about countries that have limited maps and geocoding services, see the Maps FAQ.

API: Mobile Ads API

Q: What is the Amazon Mobile Ad Network?

The Amazon Mobile Ads API serves display ads from Amazon and brand advertisers within your mobile apps. With the Amazon Mobile Ad Network, you can sell ads in your apps and games on Fire, Android, and iOS devices.

Q: Which regions are supported?

The network currently serves users in the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and United Kingdom.

Q: What are the guidelines for developers who publish ads?

Please refer to the Program Participation Requirements page for guidelines.

Q: How do I get started with mobile ads?

Follow the instructions in the Quick Start Guide for Android or the Quick Start Guide for iOS.

API: Mobile Associates

Q: How do I get started with the Mobile Associates API?

With the Mobile Associates API, developers can earn money by advertising Amazon products and services.

You can sell products inside your app from among the millions of items available at Amazon, including physical good (such as toys and clothing) and digital items (such as eBooks and MP3s). Learn more about this API by visiting the Mobile Associates page.

Q: Can I make Mobile Associates API work on Amazon devices?

Amazon’s Mobile Associates API is compatible with Amazon devices. Learn more by visiting the Mobile Associates page.

Q: My app is on Google Play. Can I use Mobile Associates API?

Yes. The Mobile Associates API is compatible with apps on Google Play. Learn more by visiting the Mobile Associates page.

Q: Who can use Mobile Associates API?

Most international and U.S. developers can use Mobile Associates API. Developers who reside in AR, CO, ME, MO, RI, and VT are not eligible to use the Mobile Associates API because the Amazon Associates program is not available in those states. Developers can only distribute approved apps via U.S. app stores.

Q: Can any app integrate with Mobile Associates API?

Amazon Appstore content guidelines apply to apps integrating the Mobile Associates API. To learn more about Amazon content guidelines, see the Approval Process and Content Guidelines section of this FAQ.

Q: Can I earn an advertising fee for every product on Amazon that a customer purchases through my app?

The Amazon Associates team maintains a list of excluded products here. These products are not eligible for sale via Mobile Associates API. In addition, sexually explicit and other adult-oriented products are excluded from product search. See the Associates Program Operating Agreement for additional information about advertising fees.

Q: What is the advertising fee rate?

Developers can earn up to 6% in advertising fees for eligible purchases. See the Associates Program Advertising Fee Schedule for complete terms.

Tools: Live App Testing

Q: What is Live App Testing?

Live App Testing allows you to quickly distribute your apps in the Amazon Appstore to a pre-defined set of testers before you go live. The testers will be able to sample the full suite of Amazon services - including in-app purchasing - in our production environment, so you can ensure your app is working as expected. Testers will not be charged for any purchases they make. This allows you to gather feedback, improve quality, increase stability and optimize the experience before you push your app live for all customers to download.

Q: What does Live App Testing include?

Live App Testing provides crash reporting and integration with Amazon's App Testing Service, which reports any device compatibility issues your app binary may have.

Live App Testing also provides tester management. Easily define the list of testers you want to be able to test your app. You don’t need to keep track of who you have invited to test your app. Amazon takes care of the complexity of ensuring that only the set of testers you defined are the ones that are testing the app.

Q: Are testers provided by me or by Amazon?

Live App Testing testers are provided by you.

Q: Which devices does Live App Testing support?

Live App Testing supports all Android and Amazon devices, including the Amazon Fire TV and Amazon Fire phone.

Q: Which Amazon APIs can I test with Live App Testing?

You can test your app binary with all Amazon APIs, including IAP. For the full list of Amazon APIs, click here.

Q: Can I test my iOS apps with Live App Testing?

No. Live App Testing only supports Android and Amazon APKs and Amazon APIs.

Q: Which marketplaces does Live App Testing support?

You can publish your test to all marketplaces, except for China.

Q: Can I promote my app binary from Live App Testing to upcoming version?

Yes. You can promote your app binary to the upcoming version, where you can make final adjustments to your app's metadata before submitting to live.

Q: Is there a limit to the number of testers that can participate in a test?

Yes. The maximum number of testers that can test your app binary is 500.

Q: Is my test confidential?

No. Though test apps will only be distributed to the testers you designate, Amazon does not impose confidentiality obligations on testers.

Q: Can any customer see my live app testing app binary?

No. General customers will not be able to browse and view your test app binary. Only testers that receive the tester invitation link will be able to download and install your test app binary.

Q: Can testers submit feedback to me through the Live App Testing service?

No, testers need to submit their feedback to you directly through a channel of your choosing (e.g., email, internal ticket system, etc.).

Q: How much does Live App Testing cost?

Live App Testing is free of charge.

Q: Is there a guide that walks me through the steps to create a test?

Yes, click here.

Q: Why do my testers not see the Live App Testing binary in their Cloud tab?

  • The tester may need to click sync to pull in the new version.
  • The tester needs to verify they have accepted the e-mail invitation and received a confirmation of purchase.
  • The tester needs to ensure that they accepted the live app testing invitation with the Amazon account they are using for testing.
  • The tester might not have a compatible device.

 

Security: Best Practices

Q: What do I do if my Android app is not validating SSL certificates as described in http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/582497?

First, verify that the SSL traffic is coming from one of the following libraries:

  • Flurry CVE-2014-6024
  • Chartboost CVE-2014-6025
  • AdColony CVE-2014-5524
  • MoMinis/Playscape CVE-2014-5525
  • TapJoy CVE-2014-5527
  • InMobi CVE-2014-5526
  • Appsflyer CVE-2014-5528
  • Zopim CVE-2014-5530
  • Fiksu CVE-2014-5814

 

After verifying that the SSL traffic is coming from one of the above libraries, refer to the CVE information for the versions of the library that are affected, and then if available, upgrade to a fixed version of the library. If all of your unverified SSL traffic is in one of the above libraries, upgrade the library and resubmit your app to Amazon.

Otherwise, if all of your unverified SSL traffic is not contained within one of the above libraries, to secure your own traffic, take precautions to protect the data of your customers. If you use a purchased SSL certificate to do this, wrap all of your code that is dependent on SSL in a try/catch block to prevent your app from sending or receiving data on the network in the event of an SSLException.

If you sign SSL traffic yourself, store your CA Authority certificate in your app's assets directory, and then use the CA Authority certificate to validate your SSL traffic within a try/catch block, and don't allow traffic if the certificate is not trusted. For information about secure Android application design and coding, including examples on how to validate self-signed SSL traffic, see section 5.4 in http://www.jssec.org/dl/android_securecoding_en.pdf.

If you have any known CA Authority certificates that you are using for your own traffic, to prevent an attack based on compromised CA Authority hosts, pin your SSL certificates that are based on those CA Authorities.

For more information about this vulnerability, see http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/582497 and https://www.securecoding.cert.org/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=134807561.

For documentation about correctly validating SSL traffic, see http://developer.android.com/training/articles/security-ssl.html.

For more information on how to pin SSL certificates in your apps and other platform’s applications, see https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Certificate_and_Public_Key_Pinning.

More Amazon Developer Resources

Q: What is AWS?

Amazon Web Services (AWS) delivers a set of simple building block services that together form a reliable, scalable, and inexpensive computing platform in the cloud. Mobile developers can access these compute and store resources through simple API calls and with the use of the AWS Mobile SDK (and other operating systems). The SDK is a development tool that makes it easier for developers to access AWS resources directly from their development environment. You can use AWS without the SDK, but if you’re new to AWS/mobile development, the SDK lowers the barrier to entry. Learn more about hosting on AWS.

To get started, visit the AWS Mobile Developer Center for libraries and code samples.

Q: What is the AWS SDK?

The AWS SDK provides a library, code samples, and documentation for developers to build connected mobile applications using Amazon Web Services.

Q: What is the Kindle Development Kit (KDK)?

The Kindle Development Kit provides rich APIs, tools, and documentation to help you create active content on E Ink Kindle devices. Running natively in Java, active content has access to our Whispernet mobile network and Kindle’s E Ink display.

Q: What is Marketplace Web Services (MWS)?

With Amazon Marketplace Web Services, sellers can easily exchange data supporting their listings and sales on Amazon.com through an integrated web service API. Sellers can programmatically exchange data on listings, orders, payments, reports, and more. XML data integration with Amazon enables higher levels of selling automation, which helps sellers grow their business.

Q: What is Fulfillment Web Services (Amazon FWS)?

With Amazon Fulfillment Web Service, merchants can access Amazon.com’s world-class fulfillment capabilities through a simple web services interface. Using Amazon FWS, merchants can programmatically send order information to Amazon with instructions to physically fulfill customer orders on their behalf.

Q: What is Flexible Payments Service (Amazon FPS)?

Amazon Flexible Payments Service is a set of APIs that enables eCommerce, subscriptions, donations, micropayment, and other applications.

Q: What is Mechanical Turk?

Amazon Mechanical Turk is a service for work that requires human intelligence. Developers can leverage this service to build human intelligence directly into their applications.